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Charles Dayton and Sara Evans will visit City Lights Bookstore on Friday, October 17th at 6:30 p.m. for a discussion on climate change and mass extinction. Evans will review The Sixth Extinction by Elizabeth Kolbert, a book about the increase in mass extinctions and the impending ecological collapse caused by man’s disharmony with the natural world. Dayton will speak and present slides about the impact of climate change on the ocean’s ecology, which is also discussed in The Sixth…See More
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Juniper Bends and Topside Press present: Where We're Going We Don't Need Roads at The Crow & Quill

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Rose Senehi with Montreat College Friends of the Library at Bell Library at Montreat College

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A contemporary tour of Asheville 1916

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I am Terrell Garren and I am searching for documents, photographs and other information pertaining to Confederate soldiers known as Junior Reserves. In the last year of the American Civil War seventeen year olds were drafted and sent to the Confederate Army. Many were captured before being officially assigned to regiments. Those not captured became part of what was known as the First Regiment North Carolina Junior Reserves. There were at least two hundred such boys from our area.

I am also searching for letters, military records, old newspaper accounts or any other information on Confederate soldiers from WNC who were in Union prisons during the Civil War.

Finally, I am seeking names and information on Union soldiers from WNC. Most of these men were in the Confederate Army first. Most went over to the Union Army very late in the War. There names may appear in both Union and Confederate records. Photographs of these men are rare and important if you happen to have one.

The state of North Carolina is also researching these same groups. Any important information I collect will also be sent to the North Carolina Office of Archives and History in Raleigh.

Thank you,
Terrell T. Garren

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Comment by terrell garren on November 9, 2013 at 11:49am

Measured In Blood: The Role of Henderson County, NC in the American Civil War

Addenda #1, November 9, 2013

MEASURED IN BLOOD

ADDITIONS, DELETIONS AND CORRECTIONS as of November 9, 2013

 

Confederate #467 – Hart, Albert C., Private – Part of his record was erroneously taken from #466. He was not killed in battle and he survived the war. His points are changed as follows: F = 583; G = 234; J = 750. Readers should subtract 2,558 points. His new sacrifice point total is 1,567.

 

Confederate #494 – Henderson, John P., Private – Henderson died of disease. He was not killed in battle. Readers should subtract 1,500 points. His new sacrifice point total is 2,722.

 

Confederate #548 – Hutchison, John W., Ensign Hutchison died wounds received at the Battle of Globe Tavern, Virginia on August 21, 1864. He should have been listed with those killed or died of wounds. Add 1,000 points to his total. His new sacrifice point total is 6,201.

 

Confederate #764 – Lyda, Andrew Washington, Private – His capture date as printed in MIB is incorrect. A “7” was typed instead of a “1.” He was captured on January 14, 1864, not July 14, 1864. His G points for time in prison should be 156, not 236. His sacrifice point total has been reduced by 80 points. His new total is set at 2,952.

 

Confederate #1064 – Riddle, Thomas H. – Riddle was a Lieutenant. He was improperly listed as “Private.” Point totals do not change.

 

 Confederate not listed – Anders (Andrews), Lindsey Baker, Private – Anders was missed in the process of the original research because his name was misspelled and he was with a unit that did not have other Henderson County men. His sacrifice points are B = 1,000; F = 608; G = 228; J = 1,250 for a total of 3,086.

 

Subtract Confederates: #476 –2,258; #494 –1,500; #764 –80: total deductions: 3,838

Add Confederates: #548 +1,000; #23-B +3,086: total additions: 4,386

 TOTAL NET CHANGE: Add 548 points to the Confederate sacrifice point total for a new total: 2,806,399. The percentage change between Union and Confederate is insignificant. Confederate 96.7%  Union 3.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comment by terrell garren on October 27, 2013 at 4:01pm

HENDERSON COUNTY: ANOTHER CONFEDERATE

Research by Jennie Jones Giles has turned up another Confederate battle hero from Henderson County, NC. He should be added to the roster found in my book Measured In Blood.

Anders, Lindsey Baker, Private

Readers are referred to NC Troops, Volume V, Page 319. The records for Company D, 13th Regiment NC Troops list "Lindsey Andrews" instead of Anders. The man listed is "Anders," not "Andrews." Raleigh has been notified and the changes have been made at the state level.

Lindsey Baker Anders enlisted September 6, 1863 and was wounded at the Battle of the Wilderness, Virginia on May 5, 1864. He was captured the day after the Battle of Five Forks, Virginia on the Southside Railroad on April 2, 1865. He was imprisoned at Harts Island, New York Harbour, New York. He was released on June 17, 1865.

TOTAL SACRFICE POINTS: 2,586

B - 1,000; F - 608; G - 228; J - 750

Comment by terrell garren on July 8, 2013 at 7:33am

DEDICATED CONFEDERATES FROM MADISON COUNTY, NC

Madison County was a small county, so how could so many men have volunteered to fight for the Confederacy? There is a solid explanation: Madison County Confederates were so dedicated that they volunteered way beyond the normal age expectancies.

On July 4, 1861, well before a Conscription law had even been considered, a group of men met at Marshall, NC forming an all volunteer unit for the Confederate Army. This unit became Company H, 2nd Battalion NC Infantry.

One hundred and seventy-nine men are listed in the records. The ages of these men reveal important information when considering Civil War loyalties. Many of the men were in their twenties or thirties, as one would expect. But many were not.

AGE 15 AT ENLISTMENT: John Flemming and William Mull

AGE 16 AT ENLISTMENT: Pinkney Sexton and Joseph Surret

AGE 17 AT ENLISTMENT: Thomas P. Askew, Andrew Crane, Solomon Davis, Jesse Keener, Amos Roberts, Franklin Roberts and John Stanley

AGE 18 AT ENLISTMENT: Harrison Davis, Hiram Gentry, Marcus Gillon. Daniel Gowin, Samuel Hoppers, Isaac Ledford, Samuel Ledford, Phillip Price and William Watts

AGE 42 AT ENLISTMENT: Joseph Frisby

AGE 43 AT ENLISTMENT: Jacob Smith

AGE 44 AT ENLISTMENT: William Davis

AGE 45 AT ENLISTMENT: John Brown

AGE 51 AT ENLISTMENT: George C. Askew

AGE 62 AT ENLISTMENT: William Crane

AGE 64 AT ENLISTMENT: Absolem Buckner

 

 

Comment by terrell garren on June 29, 2013 at 12:07pm

MADISON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

CONFEDERATE CASUALTIES

AT

THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA JULY 1-5, 1863

By

TERRELL T. GARREN

 

 

(No Union soldiers from Madison County, NC were present at the Battle of Gettysburg.)

 

 

 

2nd Battalion, Company H, North Carolina Confederate Infantry, all volunteers

This company was organized at Marshall, North Carolina on July 4, 1861.

*The word “killed” in this study includes those who died of wounds after the battle.

 

KILLED - Askew, Joseph W., 2nd Lieutenant –  He was wounded at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, captured and died of wounds on July 15, 1863.

KILLED - Duckett, Joseph N., 2nd Lieutenant - He was wounded at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, captured and died of wounds on July 7, 1863.

WOUNDED- Lusk, Samuel A. J., 1st Lieutenant, He was wounded at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863.

WOUNDED/DIED – Askew, Thomas P., Private – He was wounded at Gettysburg and captured July 1- 3, 1863. He was confined at the Union Prison at Point Lookout, Maryland where he died of “diarrhoea, chronic” on February 4, 1864.

KILLED - Askew, Thomas W., He was killed at Gettysburg on July 1, 1864.

CAPTURED – Bright, James, Private – He was captured at Gettysburg July 1-5, 1863 and confined at the Union DeCamp General Hospital at Davis Island, New York Harbor. Released on June 22, 1864.

CAPTURED - Brown, Albert F., Corporal – He was captured at Gettysburg July 3, 1863 and confined at the Union Prison at Point Lookout, Maryland until released on February 13, 1865.

KILLED – Brown, Jason J., Sergeant – Killed at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Cogdill, John R., Corporal – He was wounded and at Gettysburg July 3-5 and confined by the Union until released for exchange on December 25, 1863.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Cogdill, William A., Confined at Union hospital until released for exchange on August 24, 1864.

CAPTURED/PROBABLY WOUNDED – Colwell (Caldwell), Henry E., Private – Captured at Gettysburg July 1-4, 1863 and confined at DeCamp Union General Hospital at Davis Island, New York Harbor until released on September 8, 1863 for exchange.

CAPTURED – Davis, Benjamin, Sergeant – Captured at Gettysburg July 1-3, confined by the Union until released for exchange on September 16, 1863.

CAPTURED – Davis, Harrison D., Private – Captured on the retreat from Gettysburg  at South Mountain, Maryland July 4, 1863. Paroled and exchanged on an unspecified date.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Davis, Lorenzo D., Private – He was wounded with a gunshot wound to the forehead and captured July 1-5 at Gettysburg. He was confined at Fort McHenry, Maryland until exchanged on an unspecified date.

WOUNDED – Davis, Solomon C., Private – He was wounded and at Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Davis, William A., Private – He was wounded with a gunshot wound to the leg and captured at Gettysburg July 1-4, 1863. Exchanged and released on August 24, 1863.

KILLED – Evans, William M., Private – Killed at Gettysburg July 1, 1863.

KILLED – Freeman, James M., Record states “that he died July 6, 1863, in hospital at Liberty, Virginia.” He was probably wounded at Gettysburg and evacuated back to Virginia where he died.

CAPTURED – Glance, Jackson W., Private – Captured at Gettysburg July 1-4, 1863. Confined at Union prison at Davis Island, New York Harbor until released for exchange on August 24, 1863.

CAPTURED/PROBABLY WOUNDED – Ledford, Leander E., Private – Captured at Gettysburg July 1-4, 1863. Confined at DeCamp General Hospital and later transferred to  the Union Prison at Point Lookout, Maryland. He was released on March 28, 1865.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Ledford, Samuel E., Private – Captured in hospital at Gettysburg July 1-4, 1863. Confined at the Union General Hospital at Camp Letterman. Right foot amputated. Released for exchange on November 12, 1863.

CAPTURED/PROBABLY WOUNDED – Lusk, David R., Sergeant - Captured at Gettysburg and confined at DeCamp Union General Hospital, Davis Island, New York Harbor. Released for exchange September 16, 1863.

CAPTURED/PROBABLY WOUNDED – Miller, Adrew B., Private – Captured at Gettysburg July 1-6, 1863. Confined at Union DeCamp General Hospital, Davis Island, New York Harbor until released for exchange September 8, 1863.

CAPTURED/PROBABLY WOUNDED – Parris, Merritt R., Private – Captured at Gettysburg July 4, 1863 and confined at the Union DeCamp General Hospital at Davis Island, New York Harbor. Released for exchange September 16, 1863. He was later killed at Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia.

KILLED – Price, William F. Private – Killed at Gettysburg July 1, 1863.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Roberts, Amos, J., Private – Captured and wounded with gunshot to the forearm at Gettysburg July 1-3. Confined at DeCamp General Hospital, Davis Island, New York Harbor. Released for exchange on September 16, 1863.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Sexton, Samuel J., Private – Wounded and captured at Gettysburg July1-3. Confined at Union DeCamp General Hospital, with “elbow joint amputated.” Released for exchange September 16, 1863.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Stanley, John, Private – Wounded and captured at Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863. Confined at DeCamp Union General Hospital with a gunshot wound to the hip until released for exchange September 8, 1863.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Taylor, Hugh M., Private – Wounded and captured at Gettysburg July 1-5, 1863. Confined at DeCamp Union General Hospital with a gunshot wound to the arm. Released for exchange August 17, 1863.

CAPTURED/PROBABLY WOUNDED – Thomas, David, Private – Captured at Gettysburg July 1-4, 1863 and confined at DeCamp Union General Hospital, Davis Island, New York Harbor until released for exchange August 24, 1863.

KILLED – Trammell, Montreville P., Private – Wounded and captured at Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863. Confined until died in Union custody on or about October 1, 1863.

KILLED – White, John E., Private – Killed at the Battle of Gettysburg July 1, 1863.

 

16th Regiment, Company B, North Carolina Confederate Infantry, all volunteers

This Company was formed at Marshall, Madison County, NC on April 29, 1861.

 

CAPTURED – Proffit, Ira J., 1st Lieutenant – Captured at Gettysburg July 3, 1863. Confined at Johnson’s Island, Ohio until released March 22, 1865.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Brown, John D., Private – Wounded and captured at Gettysburg July 3-4, 1863. Confined at Point Lookout Maryland until released February 19, 1864.

CAPTURED- Callahan, Levi, Private- Captured at Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863. Confined at Davis Island, New York Harbor until released for exchange on September 27, 1863.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Hembree, James W., Private – Wounded in the right leg and captured at Gettysburg July 1-5, 1863. Confined in hospital at Davis Island, New York Harbor where his right leg was amputated July 22, 1863. He was released for exchange on September 27, 1863.

CAPTURED – Hembree, Joseph C., Private – Confined at Point Lookout, Maryland until released on February 24, 1864.

WOUNDED/CAPTURED – Riley, Fincher, Private – Wounded and captured at Gettysburg July 3-5, 1863. Confined in Union hospital at Chester, Pennsylvania until released for exchange on August 20, 1863.

CAPTURED – Stevens, William, Private – Captured at Gettysburg July 3, 1863 and confined at Fort Delaware, Delaware then transferred to Point Lookout, Maryland until released for exchange on February 21-22, 1865.

 

The source for this research is North Carolina Troops: A Roster 1861-1865, volumes III and VI. There are probably a few more casualties not shown here or otherwise absent from the records.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comment by Jennie Jones Giles on May 11, 2013 at 1:42am

I am not writing to discuss the issue of Dick Drake. From my personal viewpoint, my personal opinion only, I wish other examples of pension fraud had been used. My great-grandfather would have been just fine. He committed Confederate pension fraud.

There were white men who committed Union fraud, with excellent documentation, in Terrell's book. My personal opinion only is that examples of one Union guy and one Confederate guy committing fraud would have served the point better. The point being, yes, there was fraud on both sides.

I am writing in regards to the other black folks mentioned in this discussion. I have conducted years of research and so far have not found any blacks who were born in Henderson County, N.C., or lived in Henderson County at the time of the war who joined the Union (except for the recent research conducted by Troy Drake concerning Dick Drake who joined after the war had ended).

These men were mentioned in the discussion and, if anyone knows more about each of them, I would like additional information and documentation.

Here is what I have gathered so far on each of them. More information would be greatly appreciated. As is apparent by census reports, death certificates and military records, many former slaves did not know precisely when they were born, as to exact month or year. And, in the vast majority of cases, they did not have last names so they made up last names or took the last names of their former owners. As we all must know, slavery meant they were property, not people. In many instances, they did not know who both parents were, and at the time of their birth their parents did not have last names.

1. Jackson Holback was mentioned by both Troy Drake and Karen Rogers. Holback's death certificate states that he was born in South Carolina. On the 1910 census he states that he was born in South Carolina. All the Holbacks that I found in research had plantations on the coast of South Carolina. I have found none that had summer homes in Flat Rock. In the 1880 census report and when he joined Co. K in Tennessee he stated that he was born in Henderson County, but I have serious doubts. On his tombstone it states that he was born in April of 1833. Charlestonians did not come to Henderson County, N.C., as early as April. Several Charlestonians had slaves here in the county with them during the war (families lived here for the first time year-round for safety reasons). If he or his parents were "house" slaves (and owned  by someone other than a Holback) he could have left from here to join Co. K. As far as I know (please let me know if I am incorrect), he has no descendants here. Holback helped organize, in 1867, the black Mud Creek Baptist Church located today in East Flat Rock and he is buried at the church cemetery. Most local folks tell me that he came here after the war.

2. Alexander "Alex" Maxwell was referenced by Karen Rogers. He was born in 1836 in South Carolina. He died in 1920 in Henderson County. His death certificate states that he was born in Charleston, S.C., as were both of his parents. It states that he was buried at Shaw's Creek (black A.M.E. Zion church). He was one of the three of the first trustees of the church (after the war). He is also the person that DAR put up a wrong marker at the wrong cemetery. Barry Hollingsworth corrected this in the cemetery book. On census reports, birth dates range from 1836 to 1845, but all state born in South Carolina. Found where his wife filed a pension application after his death and he filed a pension application in 1890. When he joined the military it states that he was born in Georgetown, S.C., about 1847. He definitely came to Henderson County after the war.

3. Lewis McLean or McLain was referenced by both Drake and Rogers. Contrary to a statement made on this post, I cannot find any census report showing him in Henderson County, N.C. He states on 1880 census that he was born about 1836 in North Carolina. At the time he lived on Morristown, Tenn. In 1900 census he is still in Tennessee, states born in North Carolina. On Civil War record states that he was born in 1841 in Henderson, N.C. In 1904 he was in the U.S. National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers in Johnson City, Tenn. In 1920 he is living at U.S. National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers in Johnson City, Tenn. He died Oct. 9, 1923, and is buried at Mountain Home National Cemetery in Johnson City (plot H, 15, 2). Name is spelled Lewis McLain. On his death record, it states that he was born in North Carolina, no county or town stated. John McLean and Caroline McClain did own slaves here in the county in 1860. But, what proof is there that this black soldier was one of their slaves? How do we know since there are no descendants living here and he never lived here after the war? How do we know whether Henderson on the military record meant county or town?

4. James Newton. Contrary to statements made on this post, I can't find a James Newton in the Henderson County census reports after the war. I cannot find a James Newton who served in the 40th, Co. K, either in the National Soldiers and Sailors records or in 40th roster in any place that I have researched. Where is this documentation? Who is this person?

Ms. Rogers wrote this statement: "Frankly, how would Dick Drake know that the war was going to be over soon, as he signed up for three years as did his other friends that joined the 40th, Co. K on the same day, 29 Apr 1865."

Of course they knew the war was over. Everyone knew the war was over by this date. Union troops had already taken almost every town in the South and the vast majority of Confederate soldiers were on their way home.

Ms. Rogers then lists these men, in addition to Holback, McLain and Maxwell: Virgil Burton, Israel Chisholm and Isom Fox. She states that they all mustered out the same day and all received Union pensions.

Then she asks the question: "How come you didn’t question Virgil Burton’s alias?  Why single out Henry Harrison, “Alias Dick Drake”?"

Why would a book on Henderson County, N.C., mention Virgil Burton. He never lived in Henderson County.

1. Virgil Burton in Co. K states on his military record that he was born in 1847 in Idell, N.C. There is no place named Idell. It is possible this means Iredell County. He filed for his pension in Arkansas, stating his alias was Virgil Hoyle or Hoyal. His widow filed for widow's pension in 1923 in Arkansas. In 1870 he is living in Mississippi under name Virgil Hoyle. He states born about 1847 in North Carolina. By 1880 he is in Arkansas. What connection does this person have to Henderson County, N.C.?

2. Israel Chisholm states, when he joined Co. K, that he was born about 1845 in Sabine, S.C. He died in 1927 and is buried with Union headstone at Spring Wood Cemetery in Eutaw, Berkeley, South Carolina. Pension applications were from South Carolina. What connection does he have to Henderson County, N.C.?

3. Isom Fox states when he joined Co. K that he was born in 1844 in Norfolk, Tenn. 1870 census states that he was a mulatto living in Linville in Burke County, N.C., and born in Tennessee. On 1910 census it says he was born in N.C. He was still living in Burke County. He filed a pension application while living in Burke County. So far, have not located any information on his death or where he is buried. What connection does he have to Henderson County?

Thanks for any help in further research on these men.

Jennie Jones Giles

 

Comment by terrell garren on March 12, 2013 at 11:53am

Civil War Sacrifice Point System- How to use it within a given county?

Step 1- Compile a list of all known Civil War soldiers in the county. Include everyone you can find, including those who may have been inaccurately claimed in the past. Look at all the local histories and collect all those names.

Step 2- Go through the 1860 US Federal Census and record every name of males 13 years of age or older.  Add everyone of the new names to the list from step 1.

Step 3- Search every name compiled from the master list to confirm that they were a resident of the county in 1860.

Step 4- Do a search of every name on Soldiers and Sailors web site. Seach using the state of NC first. Then search the surrounding states and then search without specifiying a state. This step can tell you if the soldier was in more than on unit or if he served on both sides.

Step 5- Review North Carolina Troops a Roster: 1861-1865 and all of the military units formed in the county. Men who enlist in the county, in a military unit represnting the county are considered to be part of that county's contribution to the war even if they cannot be found on the 1860 census. Regardless of where they were in 1860, if they were in that county, enlisting in a unit from that county they should be count.

Step 6- Make a determination as to which men represent part of that county's contribution to the war. Compile a new and final list of men who were judged to be either a resident of that county or enlisting in the county in a unit formed in that county or a portion of a unit formed in that county. Seperate Union from Confederate.

Step 7- Review each man's record one at a time. (Remember: some me will have both Union and  Confederate records). Apply points to each man as directed in the Sacrifice Point System.

Step 8- Enter all the data from each soldier onto an Microsoft Xcell spread sheet. Point totals will be calculated by the software. You should have a spread sheet for both Union and Confederate.

SACRIFICE POINT SYSTEM

A- Killed- 2,500 points- Includes soldiers who were killed in battle, died of wounds or died violently as a result of the war.

B- Wounded in battle, first time - 1,000 points

C- Wounded, second time 1,500 points

D- Wounded, third time, 2,000 points

E- Wounded, four or more times, 2,500 points

F- One point for every day of service- If a soldier died or was killed in service, points are awared through the last day of the war. The end of the war for the purposes of the book Measured In Blood, is the probable last day of conflict for NC, May 6, 1865 when Conley's Sharpshooters of Thomas' Legion fired on Union Infantry near Waynesville, NC.

G- Three points for every day in an enemy prison- A soldier is allocated points as a prisoner from the time of capture until the date of death or the date of release from prison.

H- Dying of a non-combat cause while in service- 1,000 points

I- Dying while in an enemy prison - 2,500 points

J- Present for major battles/combat - 250 per campaign with 1,250 points maximum

 

Remember: Some records will not have enough information to calculate. In such cases the man's name should be listed with the point totals shown as "incalculable."

If this is done right you will have the most accurate reprentation possible for measuring the county's role in the war.

TG

 

Comment by terrell garren on November 22, 2012 at 12:00pm
Measured In Blood is finally finished. I ended up cutting quite a bit but I still ended up with 599 pages.

This book proves beyond a reasonable doubt that the Civil War Unionism story promoted in Western North Carolina is a myth. In some cases it is outright fraud. The whole story really revolves around money, not patriotism. I have developed a point system for each soldier which adds additional proof.

Release date is 12/15/2012.
Comment by terrell garren on August 13, 2012 at 8:37am

Henderson County Civil War Book

 

The role of Henderson County in the Civil War is the subject of my new book to released late this fall. There will be a brief history of every identified soldier from Henderson County included. We will continue to seek information and or photographs on the subject until the last minute. If there is anyone who has knowledge of such information we would appreciate contact. terrellgarren@bellsouth.net

 

An event celebrating Henderson County Confederate heritage will be held Sept. 22nd at Bearwallow Mountain. Please see "The Read" events calendar for more information.

 

TG

Comment by terrell garren on July 5, 2012 at 9:56am

The infamous date passes: July 1st

From time to time I have written or commented on the single worst day in the history of WNC. I've argued for some time that the worst day was The Battle of Malvern Hill, Virginia fought during the Civil War. Rob Neufeld's research on the 16th North Carolina Troops and others seems to indicates that the worst day was at three day Battle of Gettysburg on the first day. For those of us who are superstitious it is disconcerting to know that both horrors happened on July 1st. One in 1862 the other in 1863.

For the sceptics I should mention that the date has been a bad one even in modern times. In 1997 a rock slide closed Interstate 40 through western North Carolina for six months. It wrecked the tourist season and had an overall depressing effect in the region. TG

Comment by terrell garren on June 5, 2012 at 8:38pm

Clearification on the Royals !

The last line in my earlier posting has been misunderstood by some. When I said we should all be "suspicious," I was refering to the news media, not the royals. The Royals are just fanciful celebrities in America, thank God.

 

TG

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